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Living Mountains


How and Why Volcanoes Erupt

With Kornprobst's lucid prose and Laverne's 46 vivid watercolors, readers can see and understand the workings of different types of volcanoes. Written for a general audience, this book gives a deeper understanding of some of the most powerful forces humans have ever witnessed. This 7 1/2" x 9 1/2" paperback has 101 pages that are packed with detailed information about these mysterious fire mountains. See table of contents below.

Living Mountains: How and Why Volcanoes EruptTable of Contents

CONSTRUCTING VOLCANOES1
Simple and Complex Volcanoes1
Lavas2
Fluid Lavas: Flows and Lava Lakes3
Pahoehoe Flows, 'A'a Flows, and Ropy Lavas3
Lava Tunnels4
Columnar Jointing5
Viscous Lavas: Domes and Petaloid Flows8
Simple Domes, Complex Domes, and Cryptodomes9
Prismatic Columns in Viscous Lava11
Volcanic Ejecta11
Bombs, Lapilli, and Ash11
Inclusions and Xenoliths12
Pyroclastic Formations12
Ignimbrites14
Why Explosive Eruptions Occur15
Volcanic Gases15
Gas Expansion16
Strombolian Eruptions and Lava Fountains17
Plinian Eruptions20
Pelean Eruptions20
Surges23
When Rising Magma Meets Groundwater23
Carbonic Eruptions26
Percolation of Carbon Dioxide through Earth's Crust26
Disruption of Deep Aquifer Layers26
Overturn of Water in Crater Lakes27
The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate28
Repose Period of a Volcano and Fumarolic Activity29
Submarine Volcanoes: Eruptions beneath the Sea29
Hyaloclastites30
Pillow Lavas and Lava Ponds30
Black Smokers33
Volcanic Collapse34
Lahars34
Flank Slides35
Calderas36
WHERE MAGMA ORIGINATES38
The Earth's Concentric Structure38
Partial Melting of Rocks40
Migration of a Melt42
Formation of Magma Chambers42
The Conditions of Partial Melting43
Mantle Convection and Plate Tectonics44
Seafloor Spreading45
Subduction47
Mantle Upwelling: Partial Melting due to Reduced Pressure47
Formation of the Oceanic Crust48
Hot Spot Volcanism49
Subduction: Partial Melting due to the Addition of Water51
Magma Pooling: Partial Melting due to Increased Temperature53
VOLCANIC ROCK DIVERSITY55
Cooling History55
Obsidian56
Microlitic and Doleritic Textures57
Aphyric versus Porphyritic Texture58
Chemical Diversity59
Differences in Source Material and Degree of Partial Melting60
Magma Mixing and Contamination61
Bimodal Volcanism61
Magma Mixing or Hybridization61
Contamination62
Magmatic Differentiation by Fractional Crystallization62
Crystallization in a Magma Chamber64
Unraveling a Lava's History67
Trace Elements67
Isotopic Ratios69
DATING VOLCANIC EVENTS72
History72
Relative Chronology73
Absolute Chronology74
Carbon-14 Dating74
Potassium-Argon Dating75
Thermoluminescence76
PREDICTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS78
Estimating the Threat78
Precursors of Eruptions79
Seismic Precursors79
Inflation of Volcanoes80
Tilt Meters80
Displacement Meters80
Electronic Distance Meters81
Spatial Altimetry81
Thermal and Chemical Precursors82
Magnetic Precursors83
Volcano Surveillance Networks83
Glossary89
Index95